Category Archive: saragarhi

  1. Saragarhi Education Resource – Sign Up!

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    We believe it’s very important to teach children about the historic contribution Sikhs made fighting for Britain, and we know you feel the same. You often tell us there’s a lack of school resources and that is why teachers are not able to do so.

    Not any more!

    As we prepare to mark Saragarhi Day 2018 we’re pleased to announce we’ve produced a new education resource based on the battle containing films and lesson plans, which can be used to teach History, Citizenship and RE at KS3/4 level.

    This pack has been developed alongside British school teachers for Key Stage 3 & 4 pupils. It is made possible through funding via the Armed Forces Covenant, and as such we’re able to give the first 100 school teachers who apply FREE copies.

    If you’d like a pack – please fill in the form below, ensuring you provide your school name, your position there and the best address to post the pack out to.

      NB: Packs will be posted in Sept/Oct 2018, with a limited supply of one per school.

    • Remembering Lt Col John Haughton at Uppingham School

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      Today, we visited Uppingham School to speak to pupils there about the life and times of old boy Lt Col John Haughton, the commander of the 36th Sikhs at Saragarhi.

      The visit was timed to mark the 120th anniversary of Haughton’s death during the Tirah campaign.

      The talk was immensely succesful as filmmaker Capt. Jay Singh-Sohal addressed 850 pupils and staff in the school’s chapel. Later, we presented a copy of our Saragarhi book and film to the school’s headmaster.

      Below are the remarks made to pupils:

      Uppingham School: 120th anniversary of John Haughton’s death

      It’s my absolute pleasure to be here today – to speak about an Uppingham old boy who you might not have heard of but who has an important role in one of the greatest stories of Sikh heroism.

      His name was Lt Col John Haughton and he commanded the 36th Sikh regiment of Bengal Infantry on the unruly NW frontier of British India in 1897.

      The 36th was a class regiment – meaning all the soldiers within it were of the same faith, my faith, Sikhs.

      We believe in One God, and the teachings of the ten living Gurus – which give us our spiritual beliefs and martial traditions.

      The officers commanding the 36th understood this well – but they were British and Christian. Thus, developed a unique and mutually respectful relationship between our two races.

      Under the command of Haughton the 36th Sikhs gained a glorious reputation when on 12th September 1897, 21 of his Sikh soldiers defended the small signalling post of Saragarhi against the onslaught of 10,000 enemy tribesmen.

      The British recognised this brave last stand with many honours including a regimental holiday – which the Indian Army continues to mark to this day. The men received the posthumous award of the Indian Order of Merit, the equivalent at the time of the Victoria Cross.   

      We in the British Army also celebrate Saragarhi Day every year in September as a way of remembering the Sikh contributions on the frontier.

      It is through researching the bravery of the Sikhs at Saragarhi that I learnt more about Haughton – and with the assistance of your archivist Jerry Rudman, had the opportunity to uncover his life story at this school for my film about the battle.

      Monday marked 120 years since the death of Haughton – so today I’d like to reflect upon the life of the man described as “a hero of Tirah”. His story is an inspiring one – of eagerness to learn, to serve and to do ones’ duty which I hope will inspire you as you progress through your studies and into your careers.

      John Haughton was born in 1852 in India. He was the son of a General and war hero of the 1st Afghan War.   And although he spent his childhood in India – he came here for schooling in 1865.

      Haughton had a very Victorian education but did not distinguish himself during his schooling, as evidenced in his reports. Perhaps a lesson there to persevere in all you do.

      After Uppingham aged 17 he passed the entrance exam to attend the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and thus began his journey to follow in his father’s footsteps as an officer.

      Selection for India service at the time was difficult with only those at the top of the class at Sandhurst being selected; and it’s a testament to Haughton’s efforts that he passed out in 1871 and would go on to lead a native Indian regiment.

      In 1887, aged 35 (the same age as I am now) Haughton helped raise the 35th Sikhs in Punjab, before taking over its sister regiment the 36th Sikhs in 1894.

      Stationed in Peshawar in modern day Pakistan, Haughton immersed himself in frontier warfare. Studying and learning the tactics of the enemy tribesmen, as well as languages. He spoke French and was also learning Russian. This on top of the Punjabi and Urdu he was expected to know as a British Indian Army officer.

      Through Haughton’s leadership, the 36th trained and prepared to occupy the Samana – a strategic location near the British garrison town of Kohat with various frontier forts that ensured the Pathan tribes did not encroach into British territory.  

      It was there that the post of Saragarhi was attacked and its defenders put up a gallant last stand. Haughton showed equal courage in leading his troops, trying several times to divert the enemy from the outpost but to no avail. In his diary we find Haughton full of remorse about not being able to save his men.

      His biographer Major A.C Yates writes of Haughton’s qualities that he had a high sense of duty, strong religious feeling, staunchness, cool courage and a readiness to sacrifice himself.

      This was evident five months after the attack at Saragarhi – which led to an expedition into the Tirah homeland of the waring tribes. Haughton led his Sikhs on a difficult march into an uncharted part of Afghanistan, through hostile terrain that no Army had ventured.  

      It was on 29th January 1898, that as British and Indian troops meandered through the mountains that Haughton went to reconnoitre the Shinkamar pass. A misunderstanding in orders led to his party being exposed and the enemy advanced upon the men.

      Haughton ordered his Sikhs to fix bayonets and fire their remaining ammunition. But it was too late, a Pathan sniper shot Haughton in the head. He died aged 46.

      The commander was buried in Peshawar, leaving behind a young family. And it’s remarkable when you think that much of his adult life was spent on the frontier, far from home and from his children.

      During the making of my film we rediscovered his gravesite in Pakistan – the once magnificent marble cross has since disappeared but luckily the stone carrying his name is still there revealing his last resting place.

      After his death this school’s magazine published an article in his memory in which his old form master Mr Candler described him as “strong and valiant – a man to be depended on and trusted.”

      His brother officers in the 35th and 36th Sikh regiments raised a memorial plaque in his honour in this chapel which pays tribute to Haughton, stating he “boldly defended a position to the last against overwhelming odds.” 

      Take a moment when you can to visit the plaque, just there, to remember him.

      You might not have heard of John Haughton before today – but I hope the qualities he exhibited in his life as a Christian and through his heroic deeds are ones which you will be inspired by: bravery, leadership, devotion to the men under his charge … and to his duty.

    • Saragarhi in 2017

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      What a year 2017 has been for this project and our longstanding efforts to narrate the story of Saragarhi to mainstream audiences.

      In January, we began the year with a special meeting with HRH The Prince of Wales (pictured) where we shared the story of Saragarhi and how the British Army are succesfully utilising this shared Anglo-Sikh heritage to engage with Indians in the UK.

      In February, we began filming for the “Saragarhi: The True Story” documentary, with several shoots in India (further details here).

      March brought special recognition for our director and filmmaker, J. Singh-Sohal, who was awarded a prestigious Sikh Jewel Award by the Defence Secretary at a glamorous gala for all his efforts over the past several years with this project (further details here).

      In April we worked alongside renowned artist Raj “Pentacullar” Tattal to produce a special edition artwork of the battle of Saragarhi.

      In May, we continued our filmmaking efforts and were thankful to connect with a heliography expert who explained to us how the signalling device was utilised by the Sikhs at Saragarhi.

      June saw speaking engagements about the battle in Leicester and in Southall.

      July and our filming working for the documentary in Pakistan led to the rediscovery of the grave of Lt Col John Haughton, the commander of the 36th Sikhs, in Peshawar.

      In August we visited New Delhi (pictured) where J. Singh-Sohal delivered a special talk and teaser of the Saragarhi film to veterans and historians at the prestigious United Services Institute.

      September marked an historic ‘Saragarhi Day’, the 5th year that the event has been hosted by the British Army in the UK, at the National Memorial Arboretum, the guest of honour was Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji, the eternal Guru of the Sikhs. Our film Saragarhi: The True Story also had it’s world premier at the event before being broadcast on KTV.

      October and we continued our tour of the film with a special screening in Birmingham.

      November saw screenings in London (Nehru Centre) and California, before an historic moment in the British Parliament with a screening and a standing ovation by Paliamentarians, the British Army and community represents in honour of the 21 at Saragarhi (pictured).

      And we ended December with a screening in New York City, at the Sikh Arts Film Festival; and in Punjab hosted by the Maharaja of Kapurthala.

      Throughout 2017 we endeavoured to share our journey with our audience through the groundbreaking “Saragarhi Live” Facebook Lives and regular blogs on this site.

      In 2018, we will continue the year with special screenings and engagement with key audiences, details to be announced. Thereafter we’ll likely take a hiatus as we prepare for our next exciting project!

      We thank you for all your support and good wishes this year – and hope you are also inspired to help tell the story of Sikh bravery and valour.

      All the best for the New Year! May it be a blessed one!


    • Saragarhi Film Receives Applause in Parliament

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      +Press Release

      14th November 2017

      Saragarhi film receives applause in Parliament

      On Tuesday 14th November 2017, the British Parliament resounded to a thunderous round of applause in honour of 21 native Indian soldiers who fought to defend British India on the unruly North West frontier in 1897.

      Parliamentarians, leading members of the British Indian community and representatives of Her Majesty’s Armed Forces gathered for a special Parliamentary launch and screening of the new docu-drama “Saragarhi: The True Story”, hosted by former Justice and Work and Pensions Minister Shailesh Vara MP.

      The film, made in honour of the Sikhs who fought at Saragarhi to mark the battle’s 120th anniversary, comes after more than seven years of research and production by Captain J. Singh-Sohal, a British Army reservist and filmmaker.

      “Saragarhi: The True Story” narrates, for the first time on film, the fate of the 21 Sikh soldiers of the 36th Sikh Regiment of Bengal Infantry who on 12th September 1897 found themselves surrounded by 10,000 enemy tribesmen during an uprising on the North West Frontier between colonial India and Afghanistan.

      The brave 21 fought to the last man despite the odds, in an engagement lasting nearly seven hours and with only limited ammunition. The battle is a significant one which was commemorated by the British with memorials in India, a battle honour for the 36th Sikh regiment that fought (now the 4th Sikh Regiment in the Indian Army) and the issue of the Indian Order of Merit class III, the highest award of gallantry at that time given to native Indians on par with the Victoria Cross, which was awarded posthumously to the 21 men.

      The documentary, filmed in India, Pakistan and the UK; tells the story with unique access to private archives, never-before-seen images, stunning visual graphics, effects and re-enactment scenes.

      Event host Shailesh Vara MP said:

      “This film rightly records the outstanding courage and bravery of Sikh soldiers fighting against the odds and paying the ultimate price.

      It is right that we remember these brave men in the Mother of Parliaments, and I congratulate Captain Jay Singh-Sohal for his commitment and dedication over many years in making this remarkable film.

      The film not only informs the public, but it will also be a valuable resource for historians in the years to come.”

      Speaking about his new film, Captain Singh-Sohal said:

      “It is a unique and fitting way to honour the memory of the men who fought at Saragarhi by remembering their bravery and valour in the very Parliament of Queen and country they were fighting for. This episode of British Indian history inspired many more Indians to serve during the first and second World Wars shoulder to shoulder with the British and troops from all over the Commonwealth. And it inspires a new generation now to commit to defending our parliamentary democracy and the values it represents.  Sharing their story in our Parliament is a tremendous honour for which I’d like to express my thanks to Mr Vara.”

      The film will now begin it’s international tour, with a screening at the “Sikh Arts and Film Festival” in New York City and events across India.

      Colonel John Kendall, from the British Army, who was part of a delegation to India that visited the Saragarhi Memorial sites added:

      “The courage and loyalty of the Sikhs as a warrior race is legendary.   For over a century and a half the British Army has been proud to serve alongside Sikhs.  We have fought together in many campaigns including the North West Frontier and the First and Second World Wars.  We have fought alongside each other to protect democracy and to rescue those in need from natural disasters.  Today we are privileged to have Sikhs serving among our ranks across Her Majesty’s Armed Forces and support the work of the British Armed Forces Sikh Association (BAFSA) who help us to promote the message of inclusivity and Sikh service in the Army.”

    • New Saragarhi film set to be released for 120th anniversary

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      Press Release: 

      New Saragarhi film set to be released for 120th anniversary

      Following more than seven years of research and production, a long-awaited factual film about the epic Indian frontier battle of Saragarhi is being released to mark its 120th anniversary.

      “Saragarhi: The True Story” narrates, for the first time on film, the fate of the 21 Sikh soldiers of the 36th (Sikh) Regiment of Bengal Infantry who on 12th September 1897 found themselves surrounded by 10,000 enemy tribesmen during an uprising on the North West Frontier between colonial India and Afghanistan.

      The brave 21 fought to the last man despite the odds, in an engagement lasting nearly seven hours but with limited ammunition. The battle is a significant one within British frontier history as it came during the period known as the ‘Great Game’ with Russia, but in recent times it has largely been overlooked.

      Its impact was such that the British at the time created several memorials to it in Punjab, awarded a battle honour awarded to the 36th Sikh regiment that fought (now the 4 Sikh regiment in the Indian Army) and issued the Indian Order of Merit class III, the highest award of gallantry at that time given to native Indians on par with the Victoria Cross, to 56 men involved in the defence of all the Samana outposts.

      The documentary tells the story with unique access to private archives, never-before-seen images, stunning visual graphics effects and re-enactment scenes. Filming took place all over the UK, in India and Pakistan.

      For the first time groundbreaking footage was also gathered from the actual site of the ruins itself, which fall within the unruly tribal area of Pakistan. To highlight the dangers of doing so, on the day that filming took place on the Samana the Pakistan Army were combating Islamic State militants 40km north of the site in Rajgal.

      Speaking about his new film, journalist and filmmaker Jay Singh-Sohal said: “It’s been a long but fulfilling journey to research, film and promote for the first time the bravery of the 21 Sikhs at Saragarhi. It’s a personal endeavour; I’ve myself been inspired by it because it speaks to the shared history and values that make me proud to be both British and Sikh, and I know many others in my community feel the same.”

      “The Sikhs who fought for Britain on the frontier were rightly rewarded and honoured for their bravery and devotion to duty at that time, today we must continue to remember the sacrifices they and others made in such conflicts which might not be so well known but are vitally important. We must share it with others, celebrate our long and rich connection to our country, and motivate young people to learn from their historic lessons to take up such acts of public service.”

      The film will be screened on Tuesday 12th September 2017 at the official ‘Saragarhi Day’ commemoration hosted by Her Majesty’s Armed Forces which this year will be held at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire. The film will be broadcast on KTV (Sky channel 858) at 9.30pm on the same day.

      A special preview of the film will be held for select guests on Wednesday 6 September at a corporate venue in London Bridge. Contact us directly to register your interest in attending.

      For more information about Saragarhi:

      History of War Magazine article

      Remember the Sikh heroes for fought for Britain

      Armed Forces commemorate Saragarhi 2015

      Saragarhi book launch at RMAS 2013

      Watch commemoration day videos:

      Saragarhi Day 2015

      Saragarhi Day 2014

      Saragarhi Day 2013

    • Haughton’s Grave Rediscovered

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      During our filming for “Saragarhi: The True Story” we have been delving deep into two leaders who’s courage and duty proved crucial on the Samana in 1897. One was Havildar Ishar Singh, about whom very little is know. The other is the commanding officer of the 36th Sikhs, Lt Col John Haughton.

      Haughton’s life and times have been well chronicled by his biographer Major A.C. Yates and so we know all about his upbringing in India, his schooling in Leicestershire and his subsequent service on the frontier. This has all been explored elsewhere on this website. During our research we had the opportunity to film at his school in Uppingham and retrace his steps as an officer.

      Now we can share that after months of work we’ve managed to track down his grave in Peshawar as well.

      Above left is Haughton and in the middle is his grave site and the marble monument placed on it after his death and burial.

      Below here is how it looks now. Sadly the elements (and perhaps vandals) have left the monument in ruins. It is only the middle segment of the monument that survives, the cross is long gone as is the top block that said “sacred to the memory of”.

      Also missing or destroyed is the bottom marble segment which said “”erected by his brother officers of the 35th and 36th Sikhs in token of their regard for him as a true gentleman and a gallant soldier.”

      On the surviving marble segment you can still read that it says “Lt Col John Haughton Commandant 36th Sikhs Killed in action at the Shin Kamar Pass Bara Valley Tirah on the 29th January 1898 Aged 46 years”, although the last line is obscured by the ground.

      Finding Haughton’s resting place is important for us, not just to ensure this is included in the forthcoming documentary but to catalogue this hero’s final resting place. It is where this commander, who was dedicated to his men and his regiment, was buried after his tragic but heroic death during the Torah campaign.

      It is our hope that those who have a chance to visit Pakistan make it a point to see and pay respects to this bold and inspiring leader. You will find him at the Gora Kabristan just off the GT Road.

      *** Watch  Facebook Live: Haughton’s Memorial ***
    • Saragarhi talk at Southall Cadets

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      We had a fantastic time visiting Southall and speaking about the battle of Saragarhi to 193 Cadets (Army Cadets) and 1846 Squadron (Air Cadets).

      The group of young people were between the ages of 12 – 18, and they were given insight into the battle and got to handle the Martini Henry mk IV rifle.

      If you’d like to book a talk such as this, contact us directly.















    • After Annexation: Frontier Defence to the last stand at Saragarhi

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      On Sunday 4th June, we were invited to the fantastic Anglo-Sikhs Wars exhibiton in Leicester to make a presentation about what happened after the fall of the second Sikh Empire.

      “After Annexation: Frontier Defence to the last stand at Saragarhi” was presented by writer and filmmaker J. Singh-Sohal (pictured) and delved into how the Sikhs went from being the fiercest of British foes to the staunchest of allies.

      It took in not only the development of the Sikhs in the various units that were raised to serve on the North West Frontier, but the current context of Islamist terrorism which we see – which has some similarity to what led to the tribal uprisings of 1897.

      The talk covered the battle of Saragarhi in depth, through photographs and eye witness accounts of the heroism on the Samana.

      The audience also had a chance to handle the rifle used by the Sikhs – the Martini Henry Mk IV.

      Thanks to the organisers Sikh Museum for putting together such a fantastic exhibition and series of talks.

      A video of the talk will be shared in due course.

    • Sunrise for the 21 at Saragarhi

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      The defenders of Saragarhi saw the sun rise over Fort Lockhart on the day of battle!
      By Richard Fowell, expert heliographer

      While doing some calculations to determine the heliograph settings to signal from Saragarhi to Fort Lockhart, I spotted something that would make a memorable scene in any film about the battle of Saragarhi. Viewed from Saragarhi, the sun rose over the walls of Fort Lockhart that day!

      I stumbled over this using the tools below, but as a quick sanity check, here’s a “quick look” at the sunrise on that day from Saragarhi using Peakfinder (screenshot also attached).

      PeakFinder’s  sunrise time of 7:02 apparently assumes Daylight Savings Time (not invented in 1897) and timezone 5 –  my computations below use solar time at Saragarhi. Note that the direction of sunrise does not depend on the choice of time reference.

      The profile that Peakfinder shows has the high point of the hill a bit left of sunrise, but the height profiles in the digital elevation models are a bit uncertain – satellite photos are a much more accurate guide to horizontal positions.

      The more detailed look is the second attachment, using the solar calculator at the US Government website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA):

      You can duplicate my results (screenshot attached) with the following inputs to:

      Latitude 33.554167  Longitude 70.8875 [1] (Saragarhi)
      Time Zone: 4.726 [ Solar time: the latitude divided by 15 deg]
      Day Month Year: 12 Sept 1897 ( Battle of Saragarhi)
      Time: 05:46:14 [2]

      This is my calculated local solar time when the center of the sun would appear at the parapet of Fort Lockhart viewed from Saragarhi[2]. You will note  that at this point, the sun direction is through the cluster of modern-day buildings at the top of the hill where Fort Lockhart stood.

      There are, of course, various uncertainties in the exact location of Saragarhi and Fort Lockhart at the date of the battle, but based on the best information I have at the moment, the sunrise viewed from Saragarhi rose over the walls of Fort Lockhart that day.


      Richard A. Fowell

      [1] The position I used for Saragarhi is the high point of the ridge, as we have discussed,
      which jibes with the official report and the photo taken from Saragarhi of Ft. Lockhart.

      [2]  The time is chosen to get a sun elevation angle of 0.66 deg, which is what I calculate to be the apparent height of the Ft. Lockhart parapet
      The 0.66 deg elevation is based on 0.58 deg elevation of the ground at Ft Lockhart viewed from Saragarhi
      plus 0.08 deg for the 14 ft high walls Fort Lockhart is credited with (at range of 1.82 miles)
      I got the ground elevation angle viewed from Saragarhi from
      (actually, rechecking this, the elevation of the base of the far walls is 0.57 deg, and range to there is 1.85 miles, but close enough, I won’t recalculate).

      [3] The legalese involved in using data from the NOAA site, crediting it, etc., is covered here:

    • Superposition of Fort Lockhart view from Saragarhi

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      Superposition of Fort Lockhart view from Saragarhi
      By guest blogger Richard A. Fowell (heliography expert)

      The analysis showing locations visible to both forts places Saragarhi quite well in the East-West direction for a given position North or South, but is a bit fuzzy in the N/S direction. [1]

      The period photos taken of Fort Lockhart from Saragarhi, however, can be used to accurately place Saragarhi in the N/S direction, but will be weak in the East-West direction.

      By combining the two sources of information, we should be able to confirm the position of Saragarhi post without the need to lean on the statement that it was at the “highest” point on the ridge.

      There are two photos in the book “Lieutenant-Colonel John Haughton, Commander of the 36th Sikhs” that show Fort Lockhart viewed from Saragahri. One was taken outside the Saragahri post, and the other was taken from inside.

      Determining the N/S location where the photo taken outside Saragarhi post is something we should be able to determine to exquisite precision by looking at the alignment between a nearby object still available in the modern day photos, but is much closer.

      The bend in the Samana road close to Saragarhi is an excellent choice, since it skirts the north edge of the ridge, a feature which we can hope will not have shifted much in the last 120 years.

      The photo shows how sensitive the apparent left-right position of that road curve with respect to horizon features (such as Fort Lockhart and the edge of the cliff south of Fort Lockhart) is to the North-South location of the photographer. (The colored feature lines were obtained by superimposing “ground view” images from Google Earth of the road and horizon from various locations.

      The reason for this is perhaps clearer from the left image which shows how a line from the photographer through the bend of the road (blue lines) would shift as the photographer moves N/S along the ridge (magenta line).

      My initial rough estimate is that the position the photograph was taken from is close to the left (North) end of the magenta line, as the cliff lip east of Fort Lockhart appears to the left of the nearby bend in the Samana road in the 1897 photograph, but I believe I can refine this further with a few more iterations.

      The analysis showing locations visible to both forts places Saragarhi quite well in the East-West direction for a given position North or South, but is a bit fuzzy in the N/S direction.

      The period photos taken of Fort Lockhart from Saragarhi, however, can be used to accurately place Saragarhi in the N/S direction, but will be weak in the East-West direction.

      By combining the two sources of information, we should be able to confirm the position of Saragarhi post without the need to lean on the statement that it was at the “highest” point on the ridge.

      There are two photos in the book “Lieutenant-Colonel John Haughton, Commander of the 36th Sikhs” that show Fort Lockhart viewed from Saragahri. One was taken outside the Saragahri post,and the other was taken from inside.

      I’ve been using the first one to narrow down the location of the post, but wanted to check how close the location it was taken from was to the post.

      The answer seems to be – very close in the N/S direction.

      With some more cogitation, I may be able to answer the question ” how close” …


      I scaled the 2nd shot to match the first, rotated it -2.4274 degrees to line up the skyline (it seems that one or the other photo was not taken with the camera perfectly horizontal), cropped out the part that showed the “interesting” part of the horizon, and overlaid it with the first.

      I then made an animated gif (third attachment) to flicker back and forth between the two for a “blink comparison”[1] of the two.

      Besides the good horizon match, notice how well the two dark spots on the hill just below Fort Lockhart correspond in the two photos. If the two photos were taken from appreciably different N/S locations, then those spots would move left or right with respect to Fort Lockhart between the two photos.

      Alas, since those two spots are not likely to be in modern photos, we can’t use this to check against modern photos, but it does provide confidence that if we can line up modern images with the photo taken outside Saragahri post, we will not be far wrong in locating in the N/S direction, where the post was.



      [1] For two reasons:
      (a) the high point of the ridge is quite flat in the N/S direction – a 66 meter change in position
      for a eight ft change in height, per Google Earth’s estimate.
      (b) The absolute height is fairly uncertain in current global DEMs (though I cling to the hope that
      _relative_ height, which is all we need for the highest point, is relatively accurate for relative smooth, relatively flat terrain.
      Of course, as stated in (a), relatively flat terrain makes locating the local high point, touchy.